For several years, the food crisis has been raging throughout the world. This already existing crisis, linked to conflicts,climatic changes, to the pandemic ofCovid-19, has amplifiedwith thewar in Ukraine. Indeed, the food crisis currently hitting the world is much worse than those it has already experienced.Since November 2022, the world population has exceeded 8 billion inhabitants, as indicated by the United Nations. In theory, we produce enough to feed the entire planet.However, in reality, things are very different. Therehunger in the world continues to increase. With this food crisis,Sustainable Development Goal“zero hunger” set for 2030 seems more difficult than ever to achieve.Finally, when we talk about a food crisis, qWhere are we talking?What are the causes of this new food crisis?
The responsibility of the war in Ukraine for the global food crisis
Before Russia invaded Ukraine, global food security was already under threat. L'use offood as a weapon of war by Russia only exacerbated an already very worrying situation.
Indeed, in 2020,the pandemic ofCovid-19, forced the entire world to confine itself and close its borders. Consequences: severe disruptions to supply chains and a slowdown in global production. The impacts were immediate. The prices ofraw materials and foodstuffs soared. Millions of people found themselves food insecure. According to the UN World Food Program (WFP), in 2020, almostAn additional 120 million people suffered from hunger.
The invasion of Ukraineby Russia, in February 2022, has therefore only made this food crisis worse. These two countries are among theleading global cereal exporters, notably wheat and corn.DMany countries depend on these staple foods from Ukraine and Russia.
Every year, 74% of wheat produced in Ukraine is sent abroad, including toSomalie, au Pakistan, au Liban, au Bangladesh, ou encore au Rwanda. D’après la Banque mondiale, pas moins de 36 pays dépendent de la Russie et de l’Ukraine pour leur approvisionnement en blé. But, because of theblockade of Ukrainian ports by Russia, le pays n’a pu exporter ses denrées, menaçant ainsi la sécurité alimentaire mondiale. En juin 2022, ce sont plus de 20 millions de tonnes de céréales qui ont été bloquées et stockées sur les rives de la mer Noire.
Russia and Ukraine are also major producers of sunflower oil: 80% of sunflower oil consumed worldwide comes from these two countries.That's not all. These ofThese agricultural giants are also major fertilizer exporterssuch as nitrogen fertilizers. The latter are essential to ensure agri-food production.
Food shortages, soaring prices
The cessation of exports of these essential products has caused fear offood shortages,and ansoaring prices of basic foodstuffs. For example,sonly four months after theAt the start of the conflict, the price of wheat had already increased by 34%.More recently, thethe UN mentioneda 60% increase in global food prices in March 2022 compared to March 2020. An increase synonymous withfood insecurityfor millions of people in poverty.Today,205 million people around the world need emergency food assistance. The worsening food crisis also affects children. They represent almost half of the people affected by hunger
The climate crisis accentuates the food crisis
In addition to the Russian-Ukrainian conflict, thehe effects of climate change also have a responsibility in this food crisis. Floods, storms, cyclones, droughts, heatwaves, disastersnatural ophesmultiply and intensify.
According to the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR), between 350 and 500 medium or large disastersr occur every year. A figure that could dangerously increaseby 2030, far exceeding themore than 500 disasters per year. These climatic phenomena worsen hunger in the world. In fact, theydestroy the agricultural areas and livestock of local populations.Deprived of access to food and their means of subsistence, they are plunged into deepfood insecurity.
By 2080, if we do not act,600 million more people will suffer from hungerestimates the United Nations Development Program (UNDP).